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Introduction

JMAG provides state-of-the-art simulation methods, from the design stage to the optimization and development stages of Linear/Rotative machines such as claw pole motor, generator, alternator, it can serve a vital role and may provide an efficient solution to the optimization problem.

simulationMethods

Our software supports the design process of automobiles by offering excellent modeling and analysis capabilities. It has contributed to the development of the motors and actuators that are commonly used to control the electrical devices and it is also used for the designing and development of hybrid cars and power electronics essential for Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) and Electric Vehicle(EV).

From geometry modelling of motor components, model setup, and material modelling to high mesh quality generation, motor cooling, design integration, vibration and acoustic noise, this comprehensive software give more accurate solutions and it can be used for example, to design and optimize:

  • Many electrical devices from modern automobiles which use for various functions including opening and closing windows, positioning and reclining seats, power steering, and engine control.
  • The motors and sensors used for automobiles and required to have high reliability as well as high performance.
  • Rotating/Linear electric machines which require very accurate mesh that can account for model symmetry. it may remove the numerical errors in the force calculation. Accurate mesh is very necessary when testing precise movements of the components.
  • Actuator and Solenoid to maximize the force while minimizing the volume. This type of problem typically requires a realistic drive excitation.
 

Specific Analysis Types dedicated to the Linear/Rotative motors

The studies for Linear/Rotative motors that can be solved by JMAG are:

  • 2D/3D Magnetic Field Analysis (Static, Transient, Frequency)

  • 2D/3D Iron Loss Analysis (Transient, Frequency)

  • 2D/3D Thermal Analysis (Static, Transient)

  • 2D/3D Structural Analysis (Static, Eigenmode, Transient, Frequency)

  • 3D Electric Field Analysis (Static, Frequency, Current distribution)

  • 2D/3D Thermal Stress Analysis (Static, Transient)

  • 2D/3D Motor model for circuit/control simulators

An example of the results that can be obtained by following these analyses are listed below:
Magnetic flux, Magnetic field, Magnetization, Flux linkage, Voltage, Current, Electromagnetic force, Lorentz force, Magnetostriction force, Torque, Inductances, Resistances, Relative permeability, Demagnetization ratio, Permeance coefficient, Coercive force, Stored energy, Joule losses, Hysteresis losses, Iron losses, Dielectric losses, Electric field, Electric potential, Electric Charge, Electric power, Vector potential, Temperature, Heat flux, Heat flow, Heat source, Thermal resistance, Electric potential, Displacement, Deformation, Velocity, Acceleration, Stress, Strain, Sound pressure, Sound Pressure level, motor behavior model, torque and inductance tables (Ld,Lq).

 

Specific features dedicated to the design of Linear/Rotative motors

JMAG-Express / Motor Template Tool for Rotative motor

Motor Template: start the design of the motor by using the predefined motor models containing into the JMAG Database and find the motor basic characteristics in one second.

JMAG-Express is a tool to support motor design and it allows the evaluation of motor basic performance characteristics using JMAG’s high-precision solvers and meshers. All motor template-based, it includes everything from concept design with JMAG-Express Quick Mode to basic design and detailed design with JMAG-Express Power Mode.

JMAG Express
  • Quick Mode: Analytic analysis completed in seconds. JMAG-Express Quick allows calculation of basic motor properties in one second. Just by entering the geometry template, materials, winding, and drive conditions as parameters, you can obtain the basic characteristics of the motor (induced voltage constant, torque constant, current vs. torque, revolution speed vs. torque, iron loss/copper loss, etc.).
  • Public: “?eta” version of Express Quick mode and it’s free for the public.
  • Power Mode: High-precision results based on the combination between analytical analysis and FEA analysis. JMAG-Express Power mode is a design tool that allows you to perform motor design and evaluation by simply inputting parameters, like geometry, winding, and rotation speed, that follow a template.
    • It utilizes the finite element method's highly accurate analysis ability to evaluate eddy current losses in magnets and iron losses from local magnetic saturation or harmonic currents.
    • It also supports more detailed design studies by seamlessly using models and results from JMAG-Designer, the electromagnetic field analysis software.

 

Motor models supported by JMAG Express:

Motor models supported by JMAG Express

JMAG Express Public is free.
> Request JMAG Express
Renew it as many time as you want

 

CAD modelling for Linear/Rotative motors

JMAG-Designer has many tools with different methods to create and import CAD geometry of the motor.

  • Different available CAD formats can be imported (SolidWorks, CATIA, Pro/ENGINEER, NX, SolidEdge, STEP, Universal, ACIS, etc.). The CAD can also be linked to a CAD model created with another CAD system.
  • Motor Templates can also be used to design your motor. This library of predefined motor model can be found into JMAG Express Database to create a 2D CAD model.
  • Geometry Editor tool can be used to draw completely your motor : Creating CAD and mesh models using [Geometry Editor]. Detailed end winding can also be modelled with high precision.

CDA formats

 

Mesh Modeling for Linear/Rotative motors

  • Highly customizable mesh can be generated with higher quality. The Automatic Mesh feature recognizes any model geometry and automatically generates a high-quality mesh over the entire model including the surrounding air region and air gaps. The adaptive mesh feature uses simulation results to control the mesh size to provide a more optimal mesh.
  • For linear and rotating machines, the geometry recognition function during mesh generation has been improved, allowing different mesh methods to be created on the complex geometry of rotor and stator and where the mesh cannot be applied.
  • JMAG provides different options to optimize the mesh and enables automatic mesh generation suitable for cogging torque computing and without requiring complicated settings. JMAG can automatically generates a lattice mesh in the gap, enabling both analysis precision and speed. It also supports skews.
mesh moding

claw pole alternatorslinear motor

 

Material Database & Material modeling for Linear/Rotative motors

JMAG has since the late-1990s continued maintaining a materials database. We have continued moving forward on function development to meet the rising demand in recent years for even greater precision in loss evaluation (iron losses, magnet losses, copper losses, stray losses, etc.).

history of JMAG's loss function development

The history of JMAG's loss function development

JMAG was the first analysis software to include material properties data. Materials data being vital and yet JMAG database contained more than 700 data items from 12 material manufactures including the material for:

  • Electromagnetic steel sheet
  • Soft magnetic composite
  • Soft magnetic composite

Any users can also personalize their materials by importing or creating the new material data with properties which aren’t listed into the material database.

 

FEA simulation

We can run the FEA simulation by using any electromagnetic steel sheet and permanent magnet materials taking to account their Anisotropic or Isotropic behaviors with the following properties to get the results which describe with higher precision the real physical behaviors of your motors:

  • Magnetic properties such as BH curve, hysteresis loop and magnetization
  • Electrical properties such as electrical conductivity, band structure and dielectric constants
  • Mechanical or Structural properties such as density, Young/Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, elastic constants, mechanical tensions and magnetostriction type, residual strain
  • Thermal properties such as the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion
  • Loss properties such as iron loss density table, Hysteresis loss density and joule loss density tables

The lamination steel sheet properties such as lamination direction, lamination factor, lamination thickness, saturation factor can be also accounted into the simulation.

 

Some issues of the material modeling

  • A magnetization analysis including the magnetization device based on the magnetization process of the device is necessary for an analysis accounting for incomplete magnetization
  • Irreversible demagnetization causes variations in induced voltage and decreases in torque.
  • To prevent demagnetization, Dy diffused magnets are used. JMAG allows simulation analysis of Dy diffusion state by defining correction coefficient for magnetic properties.
  • Punching degrades magnetic properties along the boundaries where the steel sheet is punched. Iron loss is increased by production degradation.

 

issues detection of the material modeling

 

Advanced features for Linear/Rotative motors

Thermal management

Machine performance is directly related to the temperature. As magnet temperature increases, its flux goes down. Increasing temperatures also lead to higher resistance in coils. Thus, it is necessary to understand where heat is being generated and how it is translating into machine temperature. Machines with switching power supplies and/or high speed machines have high frequency iron losses and magnet eddy current losses. It is important to capture loss distribution as well as the effects of cooling such as heat sinks or water jackets. Modeling the cooling as well as accurately representing the heat sources can show where hot spots could form. Knowing this ahead of time can lead to improved designs.
thermal managment animation

temperature distribution and iron losses

 

Iron losses

A device’s iron loss has two components, hysteresis losses and eddy current losses. Hysteresis losses are induced by a changing magnetic field and form as the material’s field traverses it’s BH (Induced versus Applied Magnetic Field) loop. Eddy currents occur with current forms inside of lamination which oppose the changing field. In high efficiency machines, it is critical to accurately model losses in order to correctly determine efficiency. JMAG can both model losses and show where they are located. Using JMAG’s visualization features will show what areas need the most improvement and can help quickly iterate on new designs.

Lamination steel sheet

 

Noise and vibration

NVH(Noise and Vibration) is a growing concern for machine designers. Switching based power supplies can induce unpleasant NVH in machine which are difficult to mitigate. JMAG can model the electromagnetic forces on stator teeth and then evaluate how these forces will interact with the machine’s modes of vibration to produce noise. Determining the modes of vibration (eigenmodes) for a machine requires capturing the axial stiffness of the laminations and the accurately representing the effects of the components such as the rotor and shaft.

motor

eigenmode and electromagnetic force distribution

 

Centrifugal analysis

High speed machines can have structural issues that must be accounted for. Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) machines have magnets buried in the rotor. As the rotor turns faster, the magnets push out the rotor. IPM machines are designed to minimize the amount of flux traveling between magnets by using very thin bridges between the magnets.
Magnetically, the thinner the bridge, the better the design. However, mechanically, a thin bridge may not be able to withstand the structural forces in the rotor.
JMAG can analyze centrifugal forces on a rotor and predict the structural effects in the rotor at high speeds.

 

Winding eddy currents

Stator windings are susceptible to eddy currents when their skin depth is less than the wire diameter. In applications with a switching power supply, high frequency harmonics can induce non-uniform current distribution in the windings. This leads to an increased resistance and higher losses. Current distribution inside a wire can also be affected by leakage flux and its position inside the slot.
JMAG makes it possible to investigated winding eddy currents by modeling individual wire conductors and the fields they are exposed to. JMAG can also has tools like a Skin Depth Mesh that can more accurately represent the effects of eddy currents inside a wire.

 

Efficiency map

It is possible to create an efficiency map by running a series of machine simulations at different operating points. From each operating point, JMAG can determine the current vector which results in the maximum output power while staying within the voltage bus of the drive. The efficiency as well as copper and iron losses can be displayed as function of the operating point.

 

The software JMAG is developed by JSOL Corporation and distributed in Europe and USA by Powersys.
JMAG is simulation software developed by the JSOL Corporation for the design and development of electrical equipment’s.

 

Today, numerical methods are increasingly used for the solution of electromagnetic fields and there is a variety of commercial computer programs based on the finite element method (FEM) used for electric machine design. JMAG are dedicated tool for this king of purpose, it’s useful during the FEA simulation and optimization process of an electrical machine because it provides more advanced methods to assess more accurately the final optimal characteristics of the design. This innovative software offers very suitable solutions for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as graduate students, and academic researchers, and it covers the design and design-related issues, modeling and simulation, engineering studies, testing process, and performance characteristics of electric machines.

 

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